An ionic compound is a compound that combines electron exchanges in the valence of one or more atoms with an atom usually transmitted by metal and non-metallic acceptance.
After exchanging electrons, ions are formed by both positive and negative ions, then these ions collide together by the electrostatic force of attraction leading to the formation of ionic bonds between atoms.
Thus, in the case of the NaCl molecule, sodium is a component of iron alkali and chlorine is a nonmetal component of the halogen family.
Sodium metal completely transfers one electron and chlorine as a nonmetal will absorb this electron. All of this leads to the formation of ions (Na + and Cl–), both of which ions will be bound together by the electrostatic force of attraction, and eventually, a bond called an ionic bond.
Thus, the complete transfer of electrons (from Na to Cl) and the formation of ionic bonds between Na + and Cl– indicate why Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a naturally occurring ionic compound.
Examples of other ionic compounds – MgO, Na2O, MgCl2, etc.
How does the formation of ionic bonds occur with NaCl (sodium chloride)?
In simple terms, an ionic bond is formed by giving and taking electrons between metals and non-metals.
The formation of ionic bonds in NaCl usually involves three processes.
(1).Formation of cation(Na+)
A cation is a positive ion formed when a metal loses its electron. Therefore, in the case of NaCl ionic bond formation, the sodium metal will lose one electron and form a well-charged Na + ion.
But why do sodium iron lose its electrons? Because it has low ionization power and everything in chemistry seeks to achieve a stable octet configuration i.e. have 8 electrons in an outer shell.
Thus, sodium metal has 11 electrons which means its electronic configuration is (2, 8, 1). With the loss of one electron, its electronic configuration will be (2, 8). Therefore, it now has an electronic suspension near a decent gas configuration and has 8 electrons in the outer shell.
Thus, the sodium metal gains stability by losing one electron itself and forming a well-charged Na + ion.
(2). Anion formation (Cl-)
Anion is a negative ion formed when a nonmetal gains an electron. Therefore, in the case of the formation of the NaCl ionic bond, the chlorine atom will absorb the electron from the sodium and form a negative Cl ion.
But why does chlorine receive an electron? This is because chlorine contains 17 electrons and has an electronic configuration (2, 8, 7). By obtaining a single electron in the metal, it finds stability because now its electronic configuration is (2, 8, 8), and therefore, it has 8 electrons in the outer shell.
Thus, non-ferrous chlorine is stabilized by obtaining a single electron in the sodium metal and forming a negative Cl-ion.
(3). Electrical attraction between ions (Na + and Cl–)
This is the final step involved in the formation of ionic bonds in NaCl. After the formation of Na + and Cl–, these positive and negative costs will be borne by each other with the help of the electrostatic gravitational force produced between them.
As we already know, particles charged in reverse ions will always pull on each other, therefore, Na + and Cl-ions will pull together and connect together by the electrostatic force of attraction, and all of this will cause the formation of a bond between Na + and I- Cl- ion called ionic bond or electrovalent bond.